Spectroscopy is the study of the interaction between matter and electromagnetic radiation as a function of the wavelength or frequency of the radiation. Many chemical drugs on the market are designed to prevent or manage obesity whose high cost, low efficacy, and multiple side effects limit their use. Publishing on IntechOpen allows authors to earn citations and find new collaborators, meaning more people see your work not only from your own field of study, but from other related fields too. X-Ray Spectroscopy- Principle, Instrumentation and Applications X-rays make up X-radiation, a form of electromagnetic radiation. IR spectroscopy presents the great power in the biomedical research area due to mentioned advantages above, high sensitivity and ease application, Furthermore, IR spectroscopy is concerned as a high throughput technique that is very practical to quantify the alteration of structure, function, composition and distribution, of biologically relevant components in samples. Different kinds of embedding media can be used for soft and hard tissues. Finally, tissue samples are thaw-mounted on IR-transparent CaF2 or BaF2 windows for IR mapping and data processing . Together with excess health care expenditure, obesity also causes decrease in the productivity as a result of lost work days, mortality, and permanent disability [9, 10, 11]. These properties can be used for obtaining functional group information or monitoring molecules in different conditions such as disease states. Bizeau et al. Amerikanische … Pages 37-58. Plasminogen activator inhibitor 1 (PAI1) causes impaired fibrinolysis and promotes atherosclerosis [56, 57]. Spectroscopy Submitted to: Submitted by: Mr. Rambabu Tripathi Manish Kumar M.Pharm (Pharmacology)Department of Pharmacy , Institute of Bio-Medical Education & Research, Mangalayatan university Beswan, Aligarh 2. This allows both spatial and spectral information about the sample structure to be collected. Our readership spans scientists, professors, researchers, librarians, and students, as well as business professionals. The disk thickness is important; thin disks are fragile and difficult to handle, while thick disks transmit too little radiation. Spectral differences indicated differences in lipid structure and content of BFMI lines, which may originate from different insulin sensitivity levels of the lines. Some popular sampling techniques and accessories will be discussed below. This technique can reduce a large scale of spectra to a point in a space by using linear transformation. Soy phytosomal thermogel was found to have a local anti-obesity effect on the abdomen of experimental male albino rats with a slight systemic effect on the lipid profile data. The crystals used in ATR cells are made from materials that have low solubility in water and are of a very high refractive index. The most commonly used alkali halide is KBr, which is completely transparent in the MID-IR region . APPLICATIONS OF FLUORESCENCE SPECTROSCOPY 4.1.  determined the total content of trans fatty acids (TFA) in subcutaneous, retroperitoneal, and visceral fat of morbidly obese and nonobese patients subjected to bariatric surgery or plastic and abdominal surgery. Based on this fact, vibrational spectroscopy has been considered as a golden tool in the characterization of molecular structure. Visceral adiposity has a close relation with obesity-induced insulin resistance. Built by scientists, for scientists. Spectroscopy 2 Spectroscopy-An Introduction Spectroscopy Animation of the dispersion of light as it travels through a triangular prism Spectroscopy was originally the study of the interaction between radiation and matter as a function of wavelength (λ). It is a powerful method for investigating structural, functional, and compositional changes in biomolecules, cells, and tissues. Therefore, adipose tissues draw attraction in obesity research. PHAR 3152 Pharmaceutical Analysis II APPLICATIONS OF UV/VISIBLE SPECTROSCOPY TO PHARMACEUTICAL QUANTITATIVE ANALYSIS Reference: Pharmaceutical Analysis, A textbook for Pharmacy Students and Pharmaceutical Chemists 2nd Edition, David G. Watson, 2005 Assay Example 1: Furosemide (frusemide) in tablet form A typical example of a straightforward tablet … Adipose tissue depots are classified into white adipose tissue (WAT) and brown adipose tissue (BAT), each of them has unique structure and function. We are a community of more than 103,000 authors and editors from 3,291 institutions spanning 160 countries, including Nobel Prize winners and some of the world’s most-cited researchers. Raman spectroscopy has advanced in recent years with increasing useboth in industry and academia. Applications of Absorption Spectroscopy (UV, Visible) 1. In this method, the two spectra with the highest similarity (i.e., spectra with the smallest spectral distance) are merged into a cluster and then the distances between this cluster and all other spectra are calculated. Furthermore, supervised analysis methods have not been applied to IR spectra yet for the obesity differentiation. According to Beer–Lambert law, the signal intensity or more accurately the area under the bands gives concentration information. Luminescence Spectroscopy An introduction - Format: PDF. Applications of Fourier transform infrared ChT.3 spectroscopy Núria Ferrer Unitat d’Anàlisi Molecular, CCiTUB, Universitat de Barcelona. Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a frequent lesion associated with obesity, diabetes, and the metabolic syndrome. Since, this analytical technique provides qualitative and quantitative information as a rapid, accurate, noninvasive, cost-effective, and operator-independent for identification of the spectral differences arising from pathological or environmental conditions. A recent article discussed the potential of ATR-FTIR spectroscopy to monitor obesity from the triglyceride spectral band located around 1730 cm−1 . Unhealthy diet habits, reduced physical activity together with modern lifestyle, urbanization, genetic predisposition, and aging cause an obesity-promoting (obesigenic) environment and contribute to the higher prevalence of these diseases across all age groups . The Application of Reflectance Spectroscopy to Chert Provenance of Mississippian Symbolic Weaponry Derivatives are used for finding precise peak positions, which are mostly computed by a Savitzky-Golay filter. This study showed the efficiency and suitability of ATR-FTIR spectroscopy to identify quantitative trait loci (QTLs) that influence various traits and heightened the power of gene mapping studies. In order to achieve this, the gonadal (visceral) and inguinal (subcutaneous) adipose tissues of male BFMI lines, which are spontaneously obese were studied. HeadquartersIntechOpen Limited5 Princes Gate Court,London, SW7 2QJ,UNITED KINGDOM. Particular technique/accessory that is used also plays an important role for sample preparation. FTIR spectroscopy was used to examine the effect of altered plasma membrane fatty acid composition on membrane physical properties. In some cases, light of different wavelengths is shined on a sample and the wavelengths that get absorbed most strongly are measured. IR spectroscopy products measure the transition between stretching vibrations (symmetrical and anti-symmetrical types) and bending vibrations. essentially a graph plotted with the infrared light absorbed on the Y-axis In the literature, visceral adipose tissue has been implicated as a major risk factor for insulin resistance, type 2 diabetes [48, 58], cardiovascular disease , stroke , and metabolic syndrome . BAT is rich in protein content and mitochondria than that of WAT. Among the different methods used in cluster analysis, generally Ward’s algorithm together with Euclidian distances is used to construct the dendrograms, which gives one of the best predictions . Meštrović, Tomislav. Mass spectroscopy has an important application in analysis of sequence of amino acids in proteins and peptides, that is, analysis of structure of proteins and peptides, and this is employed increasingly. Both, atDCS and ctDCS produced significant molecular changes involving qualitative and structural properties of lipids, whereas atDCS induced more significant effect on protein secondary structure in all the brain areas investigated . Ayca Dogan Mollaoglu, Ipek Ozyurt and Feride Severcan (November 5th 2018). As PhD students, we found it difficult to access the research we needed, so we decided to create a new Open Access publisher that levels the playing field for scientists across the world. Then, how IR spectroscopy can be applied to characterization and diagnosis of obesity will be discussed in detail. The study revealed that the feeding behavior can be significantly changed by stimulating the prefrontal cortex in the rats fed high-caloric nutrients, resulting in significantly inhibited appetite. It is also employed in forensic analysis in civil and criminal analysis. We share our knowledge and peer-reveiwed research papers with libraries, scientific and engineering societies, and also work with corporate R&D departments and government entities. In terms of structural studies, there is no information yet in the literature about obesity-induced protein structural changes. The degree of unsaturation was obtained from the ratio of the integrated area of unsaturated lipids (2992–3020 cm−1) to the integrated area of saturated lipids (2830–2980 cm−1), showed stepwise decreases going from colder-exposed to warmer-exposed BAT. Other techniques include skinfold thickness, dual energy X-ray absorptiometry, bioelectrical impedance, plethysmography, underwater weighing, computed tomography, and near-IR interactance. IR microscopy, also called as IR microspectroscopy, is a type of light microscopy. A spectroscopic technique used to observe vibrational, rotational, and other low-frequency [modes in a system. Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy allows us to study the samples in its aqueous environment. A vast majority of these measurements are indirect, expensive, and based on assumptions and models [14, 15]. The dramatic biochemical changes occurred in the nonsteatotic part of the tissue, suggested that the whole tissue reflects the grade of steatosis . For example, the mechanism of the protective role of fatty acids, the effect of macrophage localization and origin to induce inflammation in adipose tissue and ER stress induced response of different organs such as liver, adipose tissue, anti-obesity effect of diets, therapeutic effect of drug, structural characterization of obese human membranes, tissues and organs are still not exactly known and further researches are required. PCA method was applied to spectral data. Optical Spectroscopy and Its Life Science Applications. Obesity might alter the electric activity in brain areas triggering appetite and craving. This procedure is repeated until only one big cluster is left. 13C NMR 3. The potential of mid-IR fiber evanescent wave spectroscopy was used as a minimum-invasive method for evaluating the liver status during NAFLD. Hydrogen Nuclear Magnetic Resonance a. Splitting or coupling (what’s next to what) b. It is also useful to sort out bad quality spectra (spectra showing signs of saturation, spectra that are too weak, spectra that are too distorted) and remove outliers. This device usually comprises of a FTIR spectrometer, an IR detector, and an optical microscope. There are a great many ways in which spectroscopy may be conducted. UV spectroscopy is type of absorption spectroscopy in which light of ultra-violet region (200-400 nm) is absorbed by the … If the spectrum of a compound comes … Some of the major applications of IR spectroscopy are as follows: 1. Each PC describes the spectral variability among samples in decreasing order. This is due largely to steadyimprovements in instrumentation, decreasing cost, and theavailability of chemometrics to assist in the analysis of data. InfraRed spectroscopy (identifying functional groups) 4. Spectroscopy - Spectroscopy - Applications: Spectroscopy is used as a tool for studying the structures of atoms and molecules. Fundamentals and Applications of Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy. Finally, the future direction of the field will be mentioned. This can be performed by stepwise hydrolysis accompanied with chromatography. TFA were measured by FTIR-ATR spectroscopy. Pages 1-19. (2019, February 26). Pages 21-35 . IR spectroscopy is one of the most important analytical techniques that almost all type of samples such as liquids, solutions, pastes, powders, gases, and surfaces can all be studied. This effect of obesity on the VAT highly correlates with the SCAT. The mid-IR spectra were acquired from serum, and then analyzed to develop a predictive model of the steatosis level. This instrument employs an interferometer and exploits the well-established mathematical process of Fourier-transformation. A representative baseline corrected normalized FTIR spectrum of a human adipose tissue in the 4000–750 cm−1 region. To date our community has made over 100 million downloads. Rsad2, which may modulate lipid droplet contents and lipid biosynthesis, and Colec11, which may play a role in apoptotic cell clearance and maintenance of adipose tissue were suggested as potential quantitative trait candidate genes. Near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) is a spectroscopic method that uses the near-infrared region of the electromagnetic spectrum (from 780 nm to 2500 nm). Smoothing is used to reduce noise in data. Detection of Impurities UV absorption spectroscopy is one of the best methods for determination of impurities in organic molecules. The prevalence of obesity has increased drastically in recent decades and reached global epidemic dimensions [3, 4]. The current study clearly revealed the power of FTIR microspectroscopy in the precise determination of obesity-induced structural and functional changes in inguinal and gonadal adipose tissue of mice lines . Common normalization methods are min-max and vector normalization. The ratio of the sample to alkali halide is important; generally, sample to halide ratio is chosen as 1:100. Intermediate steatosis exhibited an increase in glycogen amount and major changes in lipids, with a significant contribution of esterified fatty acids with elongated carbon chains and unsaturated lipids. The results suggested that the consumption of COS-RS complexes exerted a more efficient recovery of insulin sensitivity compared to individual treatments . Also, there are glass objectives in order to allow visual view of the sample. The use of the bright IR source emitted by synchrotron radiation (SR) allowed the investigation of the biochemical composition at cellular level. The content of total fat, unsaturated fat, lipid to protein ratio, and collagen and collagen integrity were measured in tissue of interest and the results of IR analysis were revealed differences in the biomolecular composition of adipose and liver tissues among high fat diet-fed BXD RI strains that reflect genetic variation. In another recent study, rats fed with a high-fat diet were treated with resistant starch (RS), chitosan oligosaccharide (COS), and a combination of these complexes with the aim of determining their effect on controlling blood glucose levels and improving insulin resistance. Raman spectroscopy: Basic principles and applications • Basic principles - Resonance Raman scattering - Surface Enhanced Raman Scattering (SERS) • Instrumentation -Spectrometer - Excitation sources • Raman in catalysis - In situ cells - In situ Raman (of working catalysts) C.V. Raman (1928) IR spectrum of a chemical substance is a fingerprint of a molecule for its identification. The dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) have been also used to measure fat pad size and body fat distribution as more reliable techniques , however, they are expensive and inaccessible. The material must be transparent to the incident IR radiation and normally alkali halides are used in transmission methods [20, 22, 23]. Obesity is one of the main factors that increases the risk of many diseases and contributes to functional disabilities in tissues such as adipose, liver, and muscle. In the case of nutrition overload, function of ER is impaired, protein folding is disturbed, ER stress develops and activates a signaling network called the unfolded protein response (UPR) to restore ER homeostasis [64, 65]. Since the SCAT is more accessible than the VAT for medical interventions, this type of adipose tissue can be used preferably in biopsies and bariatric operations . Infrared (IR) spectroscopy is a vibrational spectroscopic technique based on the absorption of infrared radiation by matters that excite vibrations of molecular bonds. The risk of diseases is determined according to cutoff values of 102 cm (40 in) for men and 88 cm (35 in) for females (WHO). In another study, FTIR spectroscopy was used to determine physio-chemical properties of pectin extracted from the apple pomace that was proposed to inhibit pancreatic lipase (steapsin). Adipose tissue responds to excess triglycerides accumulation by inducing an immune response. In FTIR microscopy, the microscope sits above the FTIR sampling compartment. Application Of Nmr Spectroscopy.pdf - Free download Ebook, Handbook, Textbook, User Guide PDF files on the internet quickly and easily. ATR spectroscopy utilizes the phenomenon of total internal reflection. To browse Academia.edu and the wider internet faster and more securely, please take a few seconds to upgrade your browser. Avantes BV. According to this metric, the grading of body fatness can be classified as overweight (BMI: 25–30 kg/m2), obese (BMI: 30–40 kg/m2), and morbidly obese (BMI > 40 kg/m2) . This spectrum is quite complex and contains several bands, which arise from different functional groups belonging to biomolecules of the system. By Ayca Dogan Mollaoglu, Ipek Ozyurt and Feride Severcan, Submitted: May 18th 2018Reviewed: August 29th 2018Published: November 5th 2018, Home > Books > Infrared Spectroscopy - Principles, Advances, and Applications. Increased circulating levels of inflammatory markers are associated with obesity-related pathologies. Here in this chapter, we will discuss the mid and near IR spectroscopy in obesity research. In current chapter, the applications of IR (mid and near), spectroscopic and microspectroscopic techniques in obesity research will be discussed in detail. Alkohol und Nikotin: Frühintervention, Akutbehandlung und politische Maßnahmen PDF Kindle. Multiple methods exist to perform baseline correction. Based on the spectral differences, the results revealed the power of FTIR spectroscopy coupled with chemometric in internal diagnosis of abdominal obesity. Because they are supervised methods, there is a need for cross-validation and independent validation dataset. The liver is the major organ of lipid metabolism and can store lipids, which could lead to fatty liver syndrome. In membrane studies, since the OH stretching bands (3400–3200 cm−1 and 1800–1500 cm−1) due to the buffer, these bands overlap with the bands of interest. The applied pressure should allow until the strongest spectral bands to appear with an intensity extending beyond 70% T, and care should be given to provide uniform contact of the sample with crystal. Login to your personal dashboard for more detailed statistics on your publications. A primary goal of this book has been to fully integrate the use of both IR and Raman spectroscopy as spectral interpretation tools. Detection of functional groups- UV spectroscopy is used to detect the presence or absence of chromophore in the compound. However, smoothing also induces distortion in peak shape and may erase small peaks and shoulders . micromachining and CD recording are examples of applications of these processes. Spain. Miura Hajime. Drying process is applied to remove the bulk water from the samples. It is mandatory to correct differences in spectral intensity that arises from heterogeneity in sample thickness or inaccuracies in positioning. How? Both surface plasmon resonance (SPR) spectroscopy and its counterpart, localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) spectroscopy, have been accepted as important means for carrying out not only nanostructure characterization but also label-free chemical and biological sensing. Cross-linking between RS and COS was confirmed by FTIR spectroscopy analysis. Application of Infrared Spectroscopy to organic compounds. *Address all correspondence to: email@example.com, Infrared Spectroscopy - Principles, Advances, and Applications. The infiltration and embedding medium for soft tissues is paraffin. Licensee IntechOpen. These cytokines mediate inflammation or play an active role in immune and inflammatory responses to obesity. Obesity-induced inflammation is emerged as a result of change in the cytokine profile, in particular, decrease in adiponectin and increase in leptin levels, mitochondrial dysfunction, accelerated adipocyte death and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress. With these state-of-the-art technology, IR spectroscopy coupled with chemometric tools have taken part in the field of biomedicine especially in determination of disease-induced spectral biomarkers, disease diagnosis, and treatment-oriented monitoring in clinical investigations. During sectioning of tissues, one of the most important factors is temperature. Protein in solution and membrane studies are only performed using this method . Figure 2 shows a representative IR spectrum of a human adipose tissue. The band positions and bandwidths of the spectral bands are measured from the center of weight (0.80× peak height position). Please use one of the following formats to cite this article in your essay, paper or report: APA. Thus, the first principle component, i.e., PC1, expresses most of the variance in the data; PC2 expresses the second largest variance in the data and so on . This sinters the mixture and produces clear transparent disks. A state of excessive accumulation of body fat results in simultaneous development of a number of metabolic pathologies including insulin resistance, glucose intolerance, diabetes mellitus, hypertension, dyslipidemia, stroke, fatty liver disease, coronary heart diseases, cancer, and metabolic diseases [6, 7, 8]. TFA content in all adipose tissues analyzed was higher than reported in other countries. IR spectrometers have been commercially available since the 1940s . There are supervised and unsupervised methods in multivariate analysis. Consequently, adipose tissue serves as a main site for activation of the inflammatory response in obesity. Bortolotto et al. In another obesity research , which targets to identify specific gene loci, regulating obesity in BXD recombinant inbred (RI) strains of mice, ATR-FTIR spectroscopy was performed as a novel phenotyping tool. Bubble formation should be avoided while applying OCT media. In KBr pellet technique, since the system is not exactly in its natural aqueous environment, some alterations in macromolecular structure may occur. Applications of Infrared Spectroscopy and Microscopy in Diagnosis of Obesity, Infrared Spectroscopy - Principles, Advances, and Applications, Marwa El-Azazy, IntechOpen, DOI: 10.5772/intechopen.81216. Before producing an IR sample in solution, a suitable solvent must be chosen. The prominent increase in the lipid/protein ratio (Figure 4), accompanied with a decrease of UCP1 protein content might be due to the transdifferentiation of brown adipocytes to white adipocytes in obese groups. This property gives an important advantage to this technique. Protein to lipid ratio, calculated from the ratio of the integrated area from 1600 to 1700 cm−1 (amide I) to the integrated area from 2830 to 2980 cm−1 (saturated lipids), was increased as temperature decreased. Representation of a spectrum before (left) and after (right) linear baseline correction. It’s based on principles of collaboration, unobstructed discovery, and, most importantly, scientific progression. Provenance of Mississippian Chert Sword-form Bifaces Illustrating Selection Diversity in Inter- regional Resource Procurement, QUANTIFYING REGIONAL VARIATION IN TERMINAL PLEISTOCENE ASSEMBLAGES FROM THE LOWER TENNESSEE RIVER VALLEY USING CHERT SOURCING, The Use of Dover-Like Tool Stone by Pre-Mississippian Peoples in the Black Bottom of Southern Illinois, “Non-destructive chert sourcing using Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy”, A CHERT SOURCING STUDY USING VISIBLE\ NEAR-INFRARED REFLECTANCE SPECTROSCOPY AT THE DOVER QUARRY SITES, TENNESSEE. That means IR spectroscopy has the capacity of analysing the biological systems as reagent free, operator independent, diagnosis of diseases at very early stage. The relationship between the spectroscopy-predicted and observed levels of steatosis, expressed as percentages of the liver biopsy area, was not linear. When a beam of radiation enters a crystal, if the angle of incidence at the interface between the sample and crystal is greater than the critical angle, incident radiation will undergo total internal reflection . Normalization is the mathematical function to set all the spectra to the same norm and scale. In the other study of the same group, lipid profiles in terms of the content and structure of skeletal muscle and adipose tissues were determined to understand better the characteristics of juvenile-onset spontaneous obesity without high fat diet induction. It uses a source that transmits IR wavelengths of light to view an image of the sample. FTIR microspectroscopy provides the opportunity to investigate heterogeneous biological tissues without any prior chemical or physical process like dying. ATR is accepted to require little or no sample preparation, and is one of the most versatile sampling techniques. The authors report no financial conflicts of interest. Brief introduction to this section that descibes Open Access especially from an IntechOpen perspective, Want to get in touch? The results showed that the progression of steatosis corresponds not only to the accumulation of lipids but also to significant changes in the qualitative composition of the tissue. Pages 75-91. The findings provided evidence for the development of IR biochemical obesity markers and showed the potential of FTIR microspectroscopy in the evaluation of the effectiveness of the drug in the treatment of obese patients . The absence of a band at a particular band can be seen as an evidence for the absence of a particular group. Both tissues are capable to store triglycerides . Contact our London head office or media team here. A recent FTIR microspectroscopic study of the same group aimed to characterize and compare VAT and SCAT in terms of macromolecular content and investigate transdifferentiation between white and brown adipocytes . The discriminatory power of these techniques in diagnosis of obesity will be discussed. The other factors while choosing solvent are that it should be as nonpolar as possible to minimize solute–solvent interactions; and it should not strongly absorb IR radiation. Recent innovations in spectroscopy and microspectroscopy contributed to evaluation, characterization, and differentiation of the obesity. SCAT possesses higher concentrations of leptin and adiponectin. Hard tissues are first exposed to different concentrations of ethanol, methyl methacrylate, and benzoyl peroxide for fixation and infiltration, and then are embedded into polyethylene methyl methacrylate (PMMA) along with a polymerization accelerator . Various techniques are available for sampling of liquids. The intensity ratio of the CH2 to CH3 anti-symmetric stretches, which the acyl chain length of phospholipids, and the ratio CH2 asymmetric stretch/amide I, which represents the lipid/protein ratio, was significantly less for the baicalein-treated cells than for the untreated cells. If absorbed energy is plotted as a function of wavenumber, an IR spectrum is observed. In vector normalization, the sum of all intensity values squared of normalized mean-centered spectrum is equal to 1. In this chapter, after mentioning about the basis of IR spectroscopy and microscopy, the sample preparation techniques, spectral analysis methods together with the chemometric tools used in IR spectroscopy, the topic of obesity will be given briefly. 1. Furthermore, FTIR spectra may give information about the disease-induced changes at very early stage, earlier than they become visible. Applications of IR spectroscopic techniques allow identifying molecular changes due to obesity, to understand the molecular mechanism of the disease, to identify specific spectral biomarkers that can be used in diagnosis. Recent studies pointed out the importance of adipose tissue in diagnosis and treatment of obesity and obesity related diseases. Of metabolic complications, which are important for their structure and activity quite so. 16 ] largely to steadyimprovements in Instrumentation, decreasing cost, and Tera Hertz ( THz ) spectroscopy triglyceride! 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