After Safī al-Dīn, the leadership of the Safaviyya passed to Sadr al-Dīn Mūsā († 794/1391–92).  His background is disputed: the language he used is not identical with that of his "race" or "nationality" and he was bilingual from birth.  There even are numerous recorded accounts of laymen that rose to high official posts, as a result of their merits. , Jean Chardin, the 17th-c French traveler, spent many years in Iran and commented at length on their culture, customs and character. The tribal rivalries among the Qizilbash, which temporarily ceased before the defeat at Chaldiran, resurfaced in intense form immediately after the death of Ismāʻil, and led to ten years of civil war (930–040/1524–1533) until Shāh Tahmāsp regained control of the affairs of the state. The Ottoman, Safavid, and Mughals were all explosive realms.  The local sheriff (kalantar), who was not elected by the people but directly appointed by the Shah, and whose function was to protect the people against injustices on the part of the local governors, supervised the kadkhoda. Although they lasted a long time it was necessary to have changes for different occasions like weddings and the Nowruz, while men of status never wore the same turban two days running. After Uzun Hassan's death, his son Ya'qub felt threatened by the growing Safavid religious influence. He expanded commercial links with the English East India Company and the Dutch East India Company. As non-Turcoman converts to Islam, these Circassian and Georgian ḡolāmāns (also written as ghulams) were completely unrestrained by clan loyalties and kinship obligations, which was an attractive feature for a ruler like Tahmāsp whose childhood and upbringing had been deeply affected by Qezelbāš tribal politics. Savory, Roger, Iran under the Safavids, p. 183. , The Akhbari movement "crystalized" as a "separate movement" with the writings of Muhammad Amin al-Astarabadi (died 1627 AD). The empire made … Power was shifting to the new class of Caucasian deportees and imports, many of the hundreds of thousands ethnic Georgians, Circassians, and Armenians. Chardin also noted that bringing cases into court in Iran was easier than in the West. 113–131. Daggers were worn at the waist. The arguably most renowned historian from this time was Iskandar Beg Munshi. According to the Encyclopædia Iranica, for Tahmasp, the background of this initiation and eventual composition that would be only finalized under Shah Abbas I, circled around the military tribal elite of the empire, the Qizilbash, who believed that physical proximity to and control of a member of the immediate Safavid family guaranteed spiritual advantages, political fortune, and material advancement. In 1599, Abbas sent his first diplomatic mission to Europe. This extensive development of architecture was rooted in Persian culture and took form in the design of schools, baths, houses, caravanserai and other urban spaces such as bazaars and squares.  Before he could begin to embark on the first stage, he needed relief from the most serious threat to the empire: the military pressure from the Ottomans. The standing army created by Abbas consisted of: (1) 10,000–15,000 cavalry ghulām regiments solely composed of ethnic Caucasians, armed with muskets in addition to the usual weapons (then the largest cavalry in the world); (2) a corps of musketeers, tufangchiyān, mainly Iranians, originally foot soldiers but eventually mounted, and (3) a corps of artillerymen, tūpchiyān. According to R.M.  Decentralized control over Uzbek forces was largely responsible for the inability of the Uzbeks to make territorial inroads into Khorasan. The dependence of Abbas on the Qizilbash (which provided the only military force) was further reinforced by the precarious situation of the empire, in the vice of Ottoman and Uzbek territorial plunder. In the midst of these foreign perils, rebellion broke out in Khorasan fomented by (or on behalf of) Mohammad's son, Abbas. He intended to convert Iran, where most of the Persian population was Sunni, into a predominantly Shi'i population. The Safavids launched a vigorous campaign to convert what was then a predominantly Sunni population by persuasion and by force. Despite the reforms, the Qizilbash would remain the strongest and most effective element within the military, accounting for more than half of its total strength. ", Founding of the dynasty by Shāh Ismāʻil I (, Civil strife during Tahmāsp's early reign, Recovery of territory from the Uzbeks and the Ottomans, Contacts with Europe during Abbas's reign, Democratic institutions in a Authoritarian society, The Isfahan School—Islamic philosophy revived, The languages of the court, military, administration and culture. Using traditional forms and materials, Reza Abbasi (1565–1635) introduced new subjects to Persian painting—semi-nude women, youth, lovers. Increased contact with distant cultures in the 17th century, especially Europe, provided a boost of inspiration to Iranian artists who adopted modeling, foreshortening, spatial recession, and the medium of oil painting (Shah Abbas II sent Muhammad Zaman to study in Rome). The Ottomans were their religious rivals as they were sunni and the Safavids were Shi’a. A year after his victory in Tabriz, Ismāʻil claimed most of Iran as part of his territory, and within 10 years established a complete control over all of it. Blow; chapter: "English adventurers at the servise of Shah Abbas.". A new age in Iranian architecture began with the rise of the Safavid dynasty. The art of this dynasty was especially noteworthy during the reigns of Ṭahmāsp I (1524–76) and ʿAbbās I (1588–1629). It was from this time that the division of the Shiʻa world into mujtahid (those who could follow their own independent judgment) and muqallid (those who had to follow the rulings of a mujtahid) took place. More importantly, for the first time in Iranian history, a substantial infantry corps of musketeers (, Artillery Corps: with the help of Westerners, he also formed an artillery corps of 12 000 men, although this was the weakest element in his army. "The shah retreats and becomes less visible. They were originally a religious brotherhood who became more powerful because of warlords and political marriages. The Safavid state was one of checks and balance, both within the government and on a local level. History of the Ottoman Empire. Other exports were horses, goat hair, pearls and an inedible bitter almond hadam-talka used as a spice in India. Suleiman was eager to negotiate his son's return, but Tahmasp rejected his promises and threats until, in 1561, Suleiman compromised with him. A Study of the Migration of Shiʻi Works from Arab Regions to Iran at the Early Safavid Era. Shortly afterwards, Bayezid was killed by agents sent by his own father.. They effectively give up war and an army that does that gets rusty. The Safavid Empire lasted until 1736. Tahmāsp resolved to end hostilities and sent his ambassador to Soleymān's winter quarters in Erzurum in September 1554 to sue for peace. After Shah Abbas's death, the central government began to decline. Abbas was also able to draw on military advice from a number of European envoys, particularly from the English adventurers Sir Anthony Shirley and his brother Robert Shirley, who arrived in 1598 as envoys from the Earl of Essex on an unofficial mission to induce Iran into an anti-Ottoman alliance. Along with the Mughal Empire in India, they were two of the three “Gunpowder Empires.” Muslim traditions influenced both empires. The order at this time was transformed into a religious movement that conducted religious propaganda throughout Iran, Syria and Asia Minor, and most likely had maintained its Sunni Shafi’ite origin at that time. The Canon of Medicine by Avicenna (c. 980–1037) was still regarded as one of the primary textbooks in medicine throughout most of the civilized world. Ismāʻil was known as a brave and charismatic youth, zealous with regards to his Shi’a faith, and believed himself to be of divine descent—practically worshipped by his Qizilbash followers. Roemer, H. R. 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